December 23, 2020

What is mucormycosis ? and how Covid -19 triggered mucormycosis infection.

What is mucormycosis ? and how Covid  -19 triggered  mucormycosis infection.




          Mucormycosis is a critical fungal infection, Earlier it is known as zygomycosis. It is spread by tiny fungi spore or molds named mucormycetes. It is an unusual but serious fungal infection. These fungi spores travel through the air when someone with a weakened immune condition inhales these air and exposed to fungi spore,  then he develops the symptoms of mucormycosis.

Causes


          This fungal infection is caused by exposure to fungi spore or mucormyete mold. These microorganisms normally found in outdoor places and  things like, 

        Soil.
        Plants leaves, 
        Lumps of compost, 
        Rotting wood, 
        Garden waste, 

         Direct exposure of these fungi or molds may develop the infection and generate symptoms in the victim's face, nose, eyes, lungs, brain and sinuses.

          These fungi similarly infect the skin also. It can penetrate the body through a deep wound, burns and cuts.

Symptoms:


Mucormycosis fungal exists itself as either a respiratory infection or skin infection. Symptoms may differ for both the infections.

Respiratory symptoms


         After exposure, this fungal infection starts with the nasal region and further spreads to the nasopharynx, throat, sinuses, eyes, brain and the other parts of the body. Once the fungus enters the brain it becomes deadly. The quick spread of infection deteriorates the patient's condition.

     Nasal congestion,
     Chest congestion,
     Fever, 
     Headache, 
     Cough, 
     Cold.
     Sinusitis.

Skin symptoms

            Mycormycosis molds infect the skin by the cuts, burns, wounds, and spread to other parts of the body. It develops symptoms like.

      Swelling, 
      Tenderness, 
      Fever, 
      Local pain
      Blisters
      Blackened spots

 Prevention


        First of all, mucormycosis is not a communicable disease. So it is not spreading through a person to person.   These types of fungi spore or mold naturally occur in a surrounding environment. Not every person who exposed to this organism will get a disease. But  People with low immunity or on immunosuppressive medicine are more prone to have an infection.  Some conditions are also more favourable to have an infection like, 

Deep wound,
Cutaneous burns,
Kidney transplant,
HIV,
Diabetes,
Diabetic foot, 
Novel coronavirus disease,
Etc.

           Self -care parameters are important factors to prevent such disease. A person with a weakened immune system, or with other medical conditions, should wear 3 ply mask and hand gloves (gardeing gloves) while doing outdoor activities like gardening etc. Similarly, attend and treat their wounds, scar or burns properly. ( if their any)

            Fungi spores and molds are significantly increased in the hot weather and autumn season, one has to take additional precautions during this period to prevent this fungal.

Covid 19 connection.

        
            Nowadays when the entire world is under the impact of a pandemic Covid 19,  a new health hazard of mucormycosis is rapidly reaching the potential eruption in India. What is the connection between this two fatal illness?  Let's explore, 

          As we know the novel coronavirus comes across to the target to persons with low immunity, mucormycosis also affects the person with weakened immune response.

         During the treatment of Covid 19 infections, the patient has been exposed to various immunosuppressive drugs like antiviral drugs to steroids to reduce the adverse effect of cytokines. These drugs lead to reducing immune strength, so in that case, increases the chances of mucormycosis infection in a patient recovering from Covid 19.  In this regard, novel coronavirus triggered mucormycosis infection in some region of India.

Treatment;  

          Mucormycosis fungal infection is a very rare but dangerous illness. Early diagnosis and proper management from the early stage will give some hope.

I.V. antifungal injections, and
Surgical management in some advanced cases to remove infected parts to prevent further spread of fungus will help to recover.

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